There are number of different ways to immigrate to Canada. The immigration process is at times lengthy and requires multiple steps to reach permanent residency. By knowing the available options for your situation, the chance of realization is much higher.
2019 Immigration Possibilities for Canada
Express Entry Selection Pool
This is an immigration selection pool which allows immigrants to relocate to Canada as skilled workers. This pool of candidates allows Immigration, Refugee and Citizenship Canada to assess and choose applicants who have submitted a profile for consideration. As a general rule to have a chance for selection under Express Entry you must have high education, high level of English or French and a minimum of one year of continuous professional full time work experience. Once you apply you will create a Profile which will award you points based on Education, Age, Work Experience, Relatives in Canada and most importantly your level of English or French. You must submit results of IELTS or CELPIP English language or TEF for French language results and your educations must be assessed by agencies such as World Education Services.
Below are the four separate categories under express entry:
- The Canadian Experience Class (CEC)
Must have a minimum of 12 months of Canadian work experience in a professional occupation
- Federal Skilled Worker Program (FSWP)
Must have a minimum of 12 months of continuous full time professional work experience
- The Federal Skilled Trades Program (FSTP)
Must have a minimum of 12 months work experience in a skill trade occupation
- Provincial Nominee
Must be selected by one of the Canadian Provinces to live and work in that Province. Express entry selection pool of candidates also gives the opportunity to provinces and territories to recruit candidates for the various provincial nominee programs so they can fulfil the demands in the labour market of the specific province or territory.
Provincial Nominee Programs (PNP)
Provincial Nominee Program are becoming more and more known way of path to Canada. Number of provinces have established their own immigration stream programs and often they lead to fast process towards permanent residence in Canada. The only requirement which differs from the federal level process is that you are expected to live and reside in the province which has nominated you. Most of the provincial programs are require a valid job offer from Canadian employer but these programs can be very beneficial to applicants who are already in Canada and are employed by Canadian employer.
Sponsorship under Family Class
Reunification of family remains in the foundation of Canadian immigration. If you are a permanent resident or citizen of Canada, you can sponsor a relative who qualifies under family class to live in Canada permanently. Usually this is designed to sponsor your spouse and dependent children. Dependent children are individuals who are under 22 years of age. Parents/grandparents sponsorship is another family class category. Currently the program is closed and shall reopen in the beginning of 2020. The process for sponsoring a parent/grandparent has changed through the years and it is no longer on first comes, first served basis. Now the selection is very similar to a lottery but not exactly. While the program is closed the parents and grandparents can remain in Canada on super visa which allows them to have a legal status as a visitor for two years at a stretch. If you qualify your parents can be issued a 10-year visitor visa. You will need to provide Canadian Private Medical Insurance for them while they reside in Canada.
Canada has various routes for foreigner to come to Canada on work visas. Some of these routes require a job offer supported by Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA), but there are also various agreements such as NAFTA and CETA which are except from LMIA. Also, there is a program for list of countries who can apply under International Experience Canada.
If your job offer requires the support of an LMIA then the employer offering the position will have to apply to Employment and Social Development Canada to receive their approval before the work visa application is submitted. This process involves a lot of time, effort and preparation but can lead to permanent residence in Canada.
This investor program is designed for individuals who have high net worth and who have owned and managed a business overseas. Allowing business people to invest in Canada contributes to the growth of the economy of the country. Currently the only investor program in Canada is in Quebec and it is a passive program. The investment is done in an approved fund and it is for period of 5 years. In addition, the investor can bring their spouse and children as part of the application, this way the whole family can apply for permanent residents.
This is a federal program and is looking for innovative businesspersons, who have the intention to develop their business idea in Canada while creating employment opportunities for Canadian residents.
Eligible entrepreneurs will be granted a Startup Visa (Permanent Residence). This program work with designated incubators and angel investors who provide funding and mentorship to the applicants with rearwards to the growth of the company and private sector organizations. This business visa remains valid even if the business fails down the road.
Various occupations fall under the self-employed category. Farmers, international, professional athletes, or individuals in the arts and culture industry are just major categories under which many occupations are included. If you can prove that you have the potential to be profitable self-employed in Canada and that you have been self-employed in that occupation abroad you will be eligible to apply under this category provided you meet the selection criteria for the Federal Self-Employed Persons Program.
Number of provinces such as British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, Northwest Territories and Yukon have entrepreneur streams and can nominate applicants under their entrepreneur streams. If you are looking to establish a business and manage that business within a particular province, you may be nominated for Permanent Residence given that your meet the requirements set by the province.
Are there other options for Canadian Immigration?
There are other ways to obtain Canadian immigration such as Humanitarian and Compassionate applications. This application is very specific and is applicable to limited situations. There must be humanitarian reasons for you to be granted permanent residence in Canada since you do not qualify under any other immigration program. Every case has to be assessed on its own merits. The process is very long (can take up to three years for a decision) and has a low rate of success.